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CHÂTEAU-GAILLARD
THE FORTRESS OF RICHARD the LIONHEART
(vers la version française de cette page)


Built by Richard the Lionheart, Château-Gaillard stands on a limestone cliff, above the Seine, near the town of Andelys, in France.

The construction, which began in 1197, was completed less than two years later. Which made the King of England and Duke of Normandy say, according to commentators at the time : How beautiful, my one year old daughter ! Richard would also have exclaimed : what a valiant castle ! (Quel château gaillard !)

The fortress has been classified as a "monument historique" since 1862.

In this book, you will see Château-Gaillard reconstituted in the appearance he could present in the years after the death of Richard the Lionheart, after that Jean sans Terre added the chapel of the west rampart.

Of course, this reconstitution is based on continual evolution assumptions. It is neither definitive nor «absolute».
Any suggestion is welcome.



DIAPORAMA OF THE IMAGES 


*
  AERIAL VIEW OF THE FORTERESSE 




Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued - The book
CHÂTEAU-GAILLARD, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart

Autor : Jacques Martel - VirtuHall Concept

Format : 21x28 cm, 134 pages, paper back
Langage : english


Order on Amazon here




Images from the french version book




You will find in the book all the images presented below - as well as a few others -, more than half in double-page, explanations on the particular design of this fortress, the story of its fall, and a summary of the life of Richard the Lionheart.



Château-Gaillard at dawn

Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued - At dawn
This image exist as a poster here.


DISPOSITION



The fortress is a set made up of several independent structures, or embedded in each other, in order to multiply the obstacles that the attackers will encounter.

1 - The first fortification, or the bastion


2 - The main fortifications, or the lower courtyard

3 - The upper courtyard


4 - The keep





GENERAL  VIEWS



South-East
Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued

North-East


South-West


North-West



Aerial view


West and East


North and South





LE HOURDAGE, OR THE WOODWORK OF THE BATTLEMENTS


As was the case with most of the fortifications of his time, Richard the Lionheart covered the ramparts of Château Gaillard with wooden hourdages covered with slate. These constructions allow the defenders to circulate above the assailants massed at the foot of the ramparts, in order to harass them using various projectiles.

The hourdages , pierced with arrow slits, also allow archers and crossbowmen to act, sheltered from enemy lines, which the battlements do not allow at the time of shooting. Finally, the slate roof protects the walkways from projectiles. In the event of partial or total destruction of the hourdage, the defenders take refuge behind the battlements in order to continue the fight.

On some elements of the fortress, the hourdage may be partial when areas are not under the direct fire of the attacker.

The partial hourdage of a tower


A rampart with tis hourdage


The same rampart without its hourdage


Cut view


Cut view


Cut view


While the hourdages of the towers were permanently installed, those of the the ramparts were only erected during wartime.
Without its brickwork, the fortress looks quite different, less massive, if one can say it that way.

Château-Gaillard, without hourdage





The VISIT



View 1
The fortress and its formidable master tower, from the southern narrow tongue of land, the only access for attackers.
Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued - The master tower

View 2
The fortress, from the rocky plateau on the east side.


View 3
The eastern flank, from the start of the path to the fortress.


View 4
The access ramp adjoining the drawbridge of the bastion, from the path.


View 5
The broken-form bridge that spans the gap between the bastion and the main body, from the path.


View 6
The entrance to the fortress, into the bastion, from the fixed bridge.


View 7
The entrance to the bastion, from the drawbridge, with its long passage between the two harrows.


View 8
The bastion, before crossing the entrance.


View 9
The edge of the bastion, with the door of the master tower, from the entrance.


View10
The northern rampart, in which the passage to the main fortifications opens from the southern point.


View 11
The entire fortress, with the Seine below, from the battlements of the master tower.


View 12
The entrance, from the center of the bastion.


View 13
The exit to the lower courtyard, through the northern rampart. As the attacker could not come from the moat, this passage does not have a harrow.


Vue 15
The broken form bridge and the entrance to the lower courtyard, from the exit of the bastion.


Vue 15
La basse-cour, avant de franchir l'entrée


View 16
The enclosure of the upper courtyard, with the keep, from the entrance to the lower courtyard.


View 17
The stables, against the eastern rampart, walking towards the entrance to the upper courtyard.


View 18
The fixed bridge that leads to the elevated entrance to the upper courtyard over the surrounding moat.


View 19
The entrance to the upper courtyard, continuing towards the end of the lower courtyard.


View 20
The bottom of the lower courtyard, with the access to the moat. Just before, in the rampart, is the postern which opens onto the foothills of the promontory.


View 21
The hollow tower, intended for the storage of various equipment. On the left, the postern of the foothills of the promontory.


View 22
At the far end, in the shadow of the junction of the strong square tower and the eastern rampart, invisible to the attacker arriving in the lower courtyard, the postern which leads to the upper courtyard opens.


View 23
The southern part of the lower courtyard, the esplanade, with the well, the vegetable garden and the chapel erected against the western rampart.


View 24
The entrance, and the stairs that leads to the operating room for the drawbridge and the harrows.


View 25
The vegetable garden, at the corner of the southern rampart and the chapel.


View 26
The chapel, walking towards the latrines tower.


View 27
The latrines tower, from which the lower rampart starts.


View 28
The southern part of the lower courtyard, turning towards the entrance.


View 29
The west facade of the fortress commander’s house, from the low rampart.


View 30
The esplanade, from a window of the latrines tower.


View 31
The hourdage of the first part of the western rampart, which runs alongside the chapel, from the top of the latrines tower.


View 32
The stable and the well on the esplanade, from the southwest tower of the courtyard.


View 33
The enclosure of the upper courtyard, from the southern rampart of the lower courtyard.


View 34
The keep, behind the enclosure of the upper courtyard, from the chemin de ronde of the eastern rampart.


View 35
The hourdage of the eastern rampart, in the direction of the strong square tower.


View 36
The hourdage, inside the rampart.


View 37
The hourdage, outside the rampart.


View 38
The moat, from the access slope.


View 39
The entrance to the caves, from the moat.


View 40
The postern of the exterior towers.


View 41
The end of the moat, at the corner of the low rampart and the strong square tower, into which a door opens.


View 42
The keep, seen from the moat, at the foot of the commandant’s house.
Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued - The keep

View 43
The entrance to the upper courtyard, from the foot of the fixed bridge.


View 44
The entrance to the upper courtyard, with its passage protected by a harrow, from the fixed bridge.


View 45
The upper courtyard, before crossing the entrance, with the edge of the base of the keep as only horizon.


View 46
The keep and its formidable edge, from the entrance to the upper courtyard.
Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued - The keep

View 47
One of the common buildings, to the left of the entrance, and the bread oven at the back.


View 48
The bread oven, at the corner of the enclosure and the edge of the keep.


View 49
The entrance and the casemates surrounding it.


View 50
Another of the common buildings, to the right of the entrance, and the commandant’s house at the back.


View 51
The east facade of the commandander’s house, facing the Great Hall. Against the wall, on the left, the narrow stairs leading up to the entrance to the keep.


View 52
The entrance to the Great Hall. At the end, after a stair, the postern of the lower courtyard.


View 53
Tucked in at the end of the upper courtyard, the entrance to the commander’s house, on the left, and the portern to the lower courtyard , at the back.


View 54
The base of the keep and the southern part of the upper courtyard, from the postern.


View 55
The impressive keep, from the entrance to the Great Hall.


View 56
The upper courtyard, from the chemin de ronde of the  north-east. In the background, the towers of the  lower courtyard. At the back, the master tower.


View 57
The southern part of the fortress, as well as the surroundings, from the chemin de ronde of the keep.


The location and orientation of each view, identified by its number.





EXTERIOR VIEWS



The fortress and its promontory, emerging from the high winter mist that regularly invades the Seine Valley, seen from the South-East.
Chateau gailard, the fortress of Richard the Lionheart, reconstitued - On the sea of high winter mist

The fortress and its promontory, emerging from the high winter mist that regularly invades the Seine Valley, seen from the North-East.


The fortress and its promontory, emerging from the high winter mist that regularly invades the Seine Valley, seen from the Noth-West



Notes :
Modelisation and render were made by the author, with Newtek Ligthwave 2015, (Newtek.com) - Newtek.com.
HDRI images used for lighting, as well as related skies, comes from Hdrihaven (Hdrihaven.com) - HdriHaven.com.